Thursday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: 5 signs you’re getting bad financial advice. Also in the news: What a financial advisor does, how Roth IRAs can help in an emergency, and why Wells Fargo customer should check their bank accounts.

5 Signs You’re Getting Bad Financial Advice
Who’s really looking out for you?

What Does a Financial Advisor Do?
Reaching your financial goals.

How Roth IRAs Can Help in an Emergency
An emergency backup fund.

Wells Fargo Customers Should Check Their Bank Accounts
There’s been a “glitch.”

Thursday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: 5 tips to get back on budget after the holidays. Also in the news: Thinking twice about that in-flight credit card offer, how a Roth IRA works, and how paying your child an allowance can pay off in the long run.

5 Tips to Get Back on Budget After the Holidays
Reigning in the spending.

Think Twice About That In-Flight Credit Card Offer
Reading the fine print.

How Does a Roth IRA Work?
Know this important retirement tool.

Paying allowance can pay off, if you do it right
How much is enough?

Tuesday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: Resolving to slim down your credit cards in the new year. Also in the news: Why you need a Roth IRA even if you have a 401(k), how to reach your 2018 travel goals with credit card rewards, and what to know about the major cryptocurrencies besides Bitcoin.

This New Year, Resolve to Slim Down Your Credit Cards
Taking a look at balance transfer cards.

Why You Need a Roth IRA — Even If You Have a 401(k)
Unique benefits.

How to Reach 2018 Travel Goals With Credit Card Rewards
Maximizing your miles.

What to Know About the Major Cryptocurrencies Besides Bitcoin
Etherium, Litecoin and more.

Q&A: Roth IRA offers key tax feature

Dear Liz: In an article that ran in my local newspaper, you stated that, “Roths allow you to withdraw the amount you’ve contributed at any time without triggering income taxes or penalties.” I suggest that you review Pub. 590-B, where you will be reminded that, with some exceptions, withdrawals from a Roth IRA within the first five years will result in a 10% penalty.

Answer: The five-year rule applies only to earnings, not contributions. The IRS publication you reference states on page 30, “You do not include in your gross income qualified distributions or distributions that are a return of your regular contributions from your Roth IRA(s).” There’s a helpful diagram on page 32 that explains when a distribution is made within five years of the year in which the Roth is opened, the “portion of the distribution allocable to earnings may be subject to tax and it may be subject to the 10% additional tax.” (Emphases added.)

Retirement distribution rules can be complex and it’s easy to make a mistake. But the fact that people can withdraw their Roth contributions at any time without taxes or penalties is not some obscure facet of these retirement accounts. It’s a central feature.

Unlike regular IRAs, where withdrawals are taxed proportionate to their earnings, a withdrawal from a Roth IRA is deemed to be from nondeductible contributions first. People have to withdraw more than they contributed to face a tax bill or penalties. If they’re over 59½ and the account has been open five years, their withdrawal of earnings will be tax-free and penalty-free.

Monday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: Feds, 11 states crack down on student loan scams. Also in the news: Adding a loan to your shopping cart, 5 top benefits of a Roth IRA, and setting your holiday spending budget in October.

Feds, 11 States Crack Down on Student Loan Scams
Cracking down.

Should You Add a Loan to Your Shopping Cart?
A new option at the register.

5 Top Benefits of a Roth IRA
What you should know.

Get Christmas budget set for holiday spending in October
The holidays will be here before you know it.

Make your teen a millionaire this summer

Gary Sidder set up Roth IRAs for his sons when they turned 13. Each year, the Littleton, Colorado, certified financial planner and his wife, Francie Steinzeig, a school psychologist, contributed an amount equal to whatever the two boys earned cutting lawns, shoveling snow and doing odd jobs. As the sons’ earnings increased, so did the parental contributions.

“Initially we started with $400, and now we do $5,500 for each,” the annual maximum allowable contribution, says Sidder, whose sons are 32 and 27. “Now that their accounts are worth more than $100,000 and $65,000, respectively, they do see the value of saving and starting early.”

Even if no further contributions are made, both sons could see their accounts top $1 million by retirement age, assuming conservative 7 percent average annual returns.

In my latest for the Associated Press, how setting up your kids with an IRA could pay off big dividends for their future.

Thursday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: Stocks at a crossroads: 3 things to watch for in June. Also in the news: Why kids should stash summer job cash in a Roth IRA, millennials are stressed about their finances, and why now is the time to buy a used car.

Stocks at Crossroads: 3 Things to Watch for in June
Watching the market.

Why Kids Should Stash Summer Job Cash in a Roth IRA
It’s never too early to save for retirement.

Study: Millennials are stressing about their finances
Feeling worse off than their Baby Boomer parents.

Why Now Is the Time to Buy a Used Car
Getting the most for your money.

Wednesday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: How to save like a superhero. Also in the news: The best way to pay for your next flight, the big mistake one-third of credit card holders are making, and warnings about Amazon third-party accounts.

Save Like a Superhero: Roth IRAs and 529 Plans
Superpowered savings.

Cash or Points? The Best Way to Pay for Your Next Flight
NerdWallet’s 2017 Travel Card Study

The big mistake one-third of credit card holders are making
Stop wasting your rewards.

Beware Hacked Amazon Third-Party Accounts
Watch where you shop.

Tuesday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: What’s love got to do with a Roth IRA? Also in the news: Are you ready for a joint bank account, why America needs black-owned banks, and 3 health insurance tax benefits you can get in 2017.

What’s Love Got to Do With a Roth IRA?
Saving for the golden years.

Two Hearts, One Bank Account: Are You Ready?
Ready to take the big step?

Why America Needs Black-Owned Banks
Honoring history.

3 health insurance tax benefits you can get in 2017
Maximizing your savings.

Q&A: Rolling 401(k) into an IRA

Dear Liz: I’m leaving my job later this month and am trying to decide what to do with my 401(k) account. Some of my friends say to leave it where it is, and others say to roll it into a traditional individual retirement account or Roth IRA. Which is best?

Answer: You can’t roll a 401(k) directly into a Roth IRA. You would first need to roll it into a traditional IRA, then convert that to a Roth and pay the (often considerable) tax bill.

But let’s back up a bit. There are few reasons you might want to leave the money where it is, if you’re happy with your employer’s plan. Many large-company plans offer access to low-cost institutional funds that are cheaper than what you might find as a retail customer with an IRA.

Money in a 401(k) also has unlimited protection from creditors in case you’re ever sued or wind up filing for bankruptcy. When the money is in an IRA, the protection is typically limited to $1 million.

If you’re not happy with your old employer’s plan, you could transfer the account to your new employer’s plan if that’s allowed. If not, you can roll the 401(k) into an IRA, but choose your IRA provider carefully.

You’ll want access to a good array of low-cost mutual funds or exchange traded funds (ETFs). The costs you pay to invest make a huge difference in how much you eventually accumulate, so it’s important to keep those expenses down.

If you want help managing the money, many discount brokerages offer access to financial planners and some, including Vanguard and Charles Schwab, offer low-cost digital investment advice services. The services, also known as “robo-advisors,” use computer algorithms to invest and monitor your portfolio.

You’ll want to arrange a direct rollover, in which the money is transferred from your 401(k) account into the new IRA.

Avoid an indirect rollover, in which the 401(k) company sends a check to you. You would have 60 days to get the money into an IRA, but you’d have to come up with the cash to cover the 20% that’s withheld in such transfers. You would get that cash back when you file your taxes, but it’s an unnecessary hassle you can avoid with a direct rollover.

Before you decide to convert an IRA to a Roth, consult a tax professional.

Conversions can make sense if you expect to be in the same or higher tax bracket in retirement, which is often the case with young investors, and you can tap some account other than the IRA to pay the income taxes. But these can be complex calculations, so you should run your plan past an expert.