Tuesday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: What’s love got to do with a Roth IRA? Also in the news: Are you ready for a joint bank account, why America needs black-owned banks, and 3 health insurance tax benefits you can get in 2017.

What’s Love Got to Do With a Roth IRA?
Saving for the golden years.

Two Hearts, One Bank Account: Are You Ready?
Ready to take the big step?

Why America Needs Black-Owned Banks
Honoring history.

3 health insurance tax benefits you can get in 2017
Maximizing your savings.

Q&A: Rolling 401(k) into an IRA

Dear Liz: I’m leaving my job later this month and am trying to decide what to do with my 401(k) account. Some of my friends say to leave it where it is, and others say to roll it into a traditional individual retirement account or Roth IRA. Which is best?

Answer: You can’t roll a 401(k) directly into a Roth IRA. You would first need to roll it into a traditional IRA, then convert that to a Roth and pay the (often considerable) tax bill.

But let’s back up a bit. There are few reasons you might want to leave the money where it is, if you’re happy with your employer’s plan. Many large-company plans offer access to low-cost institutional funds that are cheaper than what you might find as a retail customer with an IRA.

Money in a 401(k) also has unlimited protection from creditors in case you’re ever sued or wind up filing for bankruptcy. When the money is in an IRA, the protection is typically limited to $1 million.

If you’re not happy with your old employer’s plan, you could transfer the account to your new employer’s plan if that’s allowed. If not, you can roll the 401(k) into an IRA, but choose your IRA provider carefully.

You’ll want access to a good array of low-cost mutual funds or exchange traded funds (ETFs). The costs you pay to invest make a huge difference in how much you eventually accumulate, so it’s important to keep those expenses down.

If you want help managing the money, many discount brokerages offer access to financial planners and some, including Vanguard and Charles Schwab, offer low-cost digital investment advice services. The services, also known as “robo-advisors,” use computer algorithms to invest and monitor your portfolio.

You’ll want to arrange a direct rollover, in which the money is transferred from your 401(k) account into the new IRA.

Avoid an indirect rollover, in which the 401(k) company sends a check to you. You would have 60 days to get the money into an IRA, but you’d have to come up with the cash to cover the 20% that’s withheld in such transfers. You would get that cash back when you file your taxes, but it’s an unnecessary hassle you can avoid with a direct rollover.

Before you decide to convert an IRA to a Roth, consult a tax professional.

Conversions can make sense if you expect to be in the same or higher tax bracket in retirement, which is often the case with young investors, and you can tap some account other than the IRA to pay the income taxes. But these can be complex calculations, so you should run your plan past an expert.

Q&A: Shifting Roth IRA Broker Fees

Dear Liz: What can I do to stop my broker from deducting trading fees from my Roth IRA contributions, which I make monthly? Let’s say I invest $420 each month, but the broker takes $7, or $84 a year. Shouldn’t this be payable from a separate source so that I can invest the full contribution each year, thus reaping the eventual benefits of compounding the extra $84 sum over a long period of time?

Answer: As you understand, $7 per month isn’t such a small sum when you factor in how much more you’d get over time by investing that money instead of paying it to a broker. If that money remained in your account, you’d have roughly $8,500 more at the end of 30 years, assuming 7% average annual returns.

All investments have costs, of course, but minimizing those costs typically means you’ll create more wealth.

You can ask your broker if there is a way to pay the monthly fee from another account, but any commission you pay would be included in the annual amount you’re allowed to contribute. If your broker isn’t providing helpful investment advice to justify the commission, you can look into ways to invest for less, such as using a discount brokerage.

Q&A: Tax credit for Roth IRA contributions

Dear Liz: You told a reader that “contributions to a Roth are never deductible.” This statement is a common misconception and is not correct. You can get a tax credit for Roth IRA contributions as long as you fall under the income limits and itemize on your taxes. The credit phases out at $30,000 for singles and $60,000 for married couples.

Answer: A credit is different from a deduction, but thank you for pointing out a tax benefit that many people don’t know exists.

This non-refundable credit, sometimes called a Saver’s Credit, can slice up to $1,000 per person off the tax bill of eligible taxpayers. The credit is available to people 18 and older who aren’t students or claimed as a dependent on someone else’s return. The lowest income taxpayers — those with adjusted gross incomes under $36,000 for marrieds filing jointly or $18,000 for singles in 2014 — can get a tax credit of 50% of up to $2,000 per person ($4,000 for married couples) contributed to retirement plans. Those plans can include traditional or Roth IRAs, 401(k)s or 403(b)s, 457(b)s and SIMPLE IRAs, among others. The credit drops to 20% and then 10% before phasing out. The average amount saved isn’t spectacular: The IRS said credits averaged $205 for joint filers in 2012 and $127 for single filers, but every bit helps.

One of the problems with this tax break, besides so few people knowing about it, is that many low-income people don’t owe income taxes, so they have nothing to offset with this credit. Another issue is that taxpayers need to file a 1040 or 1040A and use Form 8880 to claim it. Low-income taxpayers often use the 1040EZ form, which doesn’t allow them to claim the credit or alert them that it exists.

Monday’s need-to-know money news

Zemanta Related Posts ThumbnailToday’s top story: How Generation X should plan for retirement. Also in the news: Factors that affect your Social Security benefits, five things that can ruin your tax refund, and important financial steps widows and widowers need to take.

Retirement planning steps for Generation X
Time’s running out.

3 Factors That Affect Your Social Security Benefits
How to plan ahead.

5 things that can kill a tax refund
Don’t get caught off guard.

8 Important Financial Steps for Widows and Widowers to Take
Important steps to take during a difficult time.

Roth IRA vs. Traditional IRA: Which Is Right for You?
The pros and cons of each retirement plan.

Monday’s need-to-know money news

Zemanta Related Posts ThumbnailToday’s top story: Five changes lawmakers have made to your taxes for 2015. Also in the news: Keeping your low-down-payment mortgage affordable, why using a Roth IRA to pay for college could work against you, and three reasons why you can’t stick to a budget.

5 Major Changes Lawmakers Made to Your Taxes
Getting ready for 2015.

How to Keep a Low-Down-Payment Mortgage Affordable
How to handle PMI.

Using a Roth IRA to Pay for College May Work Against You
Your child’s financial aid package could take a hit.

3 reasons why you just can’t stick to a budget
Besides being human.

Retailers’ data breaches could get ‘ugly’
More like ‘uglier’.

5 hacks to boost your retirement savings

seniorslaptopMany people have trouble saving anything for retirement. But I hear from a fair number of people who are looking beyond 401(k)s and IRAs for more tax-advantaged ways to save.

Many have maxed out their 401(k)s at work, or had their contributions limited because they’re considered “highly compensated employees.” Some don’t have a workplace plan at all, while others want to save more than IRAs allow. Even catch-up provisions–which allow people 50 and over to contribute an extra $5,500 to 401(k)s and an extra $1,000 to IRAs–aren’t enough for some of these super savers.

So here are options for those who have maxed out and caught up:

Opt for an HSA. Health savings accounts, which are coupled with high-deductible health insurance plans, offer a rare triple tax advantage: contributions are tax deductible, gains grow tax-deferred (and can be rolled over from year to year), and withdrawals are tax free if used for medical expenses. Withdrawals are also tax free in retirement, which makes HSAs a potentially better vehicle for saving than the much-loved Roth IRA. (Some say yes, others no.) Speaking of which:

Consider a back-door Roth contribution. If you make too much money, you can’t contribute directly to a Roth. There is a workaround, according to IRA guru Ed Slott, that takes advantage of the fact that anyone regardless of income can convert a traditional IRA to a Roth. You can read more about the strategy here and the potential drawbacks here.

Start a side business. Small business owners are spoiled for choice when it comes to tax advantaged plans. The options range from SEP IRAs to solo 401(k)s to full-on traditional pensions (and baby, you can save a ton of money in those—as in hundreds of thousands of dollars annually). Talk to a CPA about which plan makes the most sense for you.

Use a 457 plan. These deferred compensation plans are often available to state and local public employees as well as people who work for some nonprofits. Like a 401(k), you’re allowed to contribute pre-tax money. Unlike a 401(k), you don’t get slapped with early withdrawal penalties if you take the money out before age 59 (although you will owe income taxes).

Contribute to a regular brokerage account. There’s no upfront deduction, but investments held at least a year can qualify you for favorable capital gains tax rates. This, by the way, is typically a much better option than variable annuities, which tend to have high costs and limited tax advantages for most people.

Q&A: Roth IRA

Dear Liz: I have a 401(k) that has a required annual distribution because I am over 71 1/2 years old. Can I use this distribution as qualified income to invest in a Roth IRA? I have no W-2 earnings, although I do have other income sources that are reported on 1099 forms.

Answer: To contribute to a Roth or other individual retirement account, you must have taxable compensation, which the IRS defines as wages, salaries, commissions, tips, bonuses or net income from self-employment. The IRS also includes taxable alimony and separate maintenance payments as compensation for IRA purposes.

So if the money reported on one of those 1099 forms is from self-employment income, then you can contribute to a Roth IRA. If the form is reporting interest and dividends or other income that doesn’t meet the IRS definition of taxable compensation, then you’re out of luck.
If you don’t have income that meets the IRS definition of taxable compensation, but your spouse does, you may still qualify for IRA contributions, provided you file a joint return that meets the required income thresholds.

Monday’s need-to-know money news

Zemanta Related Posts ThumbnailToday’s top story: The tax mistake you cannot afford to make. Also in the news: The best time to shop for Christmas (seriously), how to keep your kids out of debt, and how to use your Roth IRA as an emergency fund.

The 1 Tax Mistake You Must Not Make
Making sure your figures match.

Best Time to Shop, Save for Christmas? Now
It’s practically right around the corner!

5 Tips for Keeping Your Kids (and Grandkids) Out of Debt
Teaching the value of money during Financial Literacy Month.

How To Use Your Roth IRA As An Emergency Fund
Not just for retirement.

Negotiate Your College Financial Aid to Get the Best Deal
If done right, the school of your choice could match your best offer.

5 LAST-MINUTE MONEY MOVES BEFORE 2014

Tax return checkOkay, you’re on overload with all the last-minute shopping, cooking, preparing for guests and/or traveling. But try to squeeze in a few money tasks before year-end. Including:

Contribute to an IRA. You can put money into an IRA even if you have a retirement plan through work, but you may not be able to deduct the contribution if your income is over certain limits. If, on the other hand, your income is low, you could score a valuable tax credit for your retirement contributions. The problem of course is that it can be tough to come up with the maximum contribution of $5,500 ($6,500 for those 50 and over) at year end. Luckily, you have until tax day, April 15, 2014, to make your contribution for 2013. And consider setting up regular contributions to your IRA so you don’t have to scramble for the cash next year.

Make a (back door) Roth contribution. If you can’t deduct an IRA contribution, a better option is to contribute to a Roth IRA. Roth contributions aren’t deductible but withdrawals from the accounts are tax-free in retirement (unlike regular IRA withdrawals, which incur income taxes). If your income is too high to contribute to a Roth directly, you can contribute to a regular IRA and then convert it to a Roth. This works best if you don’t already have a fat IRA account, since your tax bill for the conversion will be based on the total you have saved in regular IRAs.

Use it or lose (most) of it. If you have money set aside in a flexible spending account at work for medical or child care expenses, you typically need to use it up by year end. There are some exceptions: the Treasury Department recently said plan participants can roll up to $500 of unused funds into the next year’s plans, and some employers extend the deadline from Dec. 31 to mid-March.

Accelerate and delay. If you don’t expect a big change in your tax circumstances, it can make sense to delay income into 2014 (by asking your boss to pay a bonus next year instead of this, for example) and to accelerate deductions by paying mortgage, property tax or medical bills for January in December.

Get generous. If you itemize your deductions, you can get a tax break for your charitable contributions. Again, rushing to get those in at the last minute isn’t ideal, so consider setting up regular contributions such as paycheck deductions or monthly payments to your favorite nonprofits. No extra cash? “Noncash” donations—such as clothes or household items—can earn you a deduction as well. They just have to be in good condition and given to a recognized charity.