Why NFL players go broke, and what you can learn

Terrell Owens originally was famous for his many National Football League records and over-the-top touchdown celebrations. But he’s also famous for running through most of the $80 million he made during his 15-year career, thanks in part to bad investments and business deals.

“Having a lot of money it’s good but at the same time you have to be smart with it,” Owens says. “You have to really find the right people to help you manage that money going down the road.”

Sports Illustrated once estimated that 78 percent of NFL players end up broke or under financial stress after they retire. In an interview with NerdWallet, Owens and his friend Eric Dickerson, the Hall of Fame running back most famous for his time with the Los Angeles Rams, talked about their experiences and what young athletes should know about building a solid financial future.

Q&A: Debt settlement vs. filing for bankruptcy: Pros and cons

Dear Liz: I owe a credit card company about $16,900. I have not been able to make payments for almost two years and have no money. They recently sent me a proposal to pay off the entire amount at 30 cents on the dollar by making 24 payments of a little over $200 per month. I’m concerned they can then resell the unpaid amount to a debt collector and that it really isn’t a solution for the entire debt to be extinguished, even if I agree to their proposal. Am I right?

Answer: In the past, poor record-keeping and unethical behavior meant some debt buyers routinely re-sold debts that were supposed to be settled. While that can still happen, it’s less likely, especially if you’re dealing with the original creditor or a company that’s collecting on the creditor’s behalf, rather than a company that purchased an older debt.

You’ve been offered a pretty good deal, says Michael Bovee, president of debt settlement company Consumer Recovery Network. Typically debts are settled for 40 to 50 cents on the dollar.

That doesn’t mean you should take it, necessarily. You have to be able to make the payments to get the debt settled, for one thing. Also, any debt that’s forgiven can be treated as income to you. The creditor will send you (and the IRS) a Form 1099-C showing the forgiven amount and you’ll typically owe income taxes on that amount unless you’re insolvent. If you’re in the 25% tax bracket, that would add roughly $3,000 to the cost of settling this debt.

Many people who can’t pay what they owe are better off skipping debt settlement and filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, which erases credit card balances, medical bills, personal loans and many other unsecured debts in three to four months. Chapter 7 typically has a bigger impact on your credit scores than debt settlement, but it legally erases the debts and prevents creditors from filing lawsuits against you. If you try to repay this debt and fail, or if you continue simply ignoring it, you could get sued.

You can get a referral to an experienced attorney from the National Assn. of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys at www.nacba.org. Discuss your situation and your options before you decide how to proceed.

Debt settlement a bad alternative to bankruptcy

Debt settlement isn’t the Wild West industry it was a decade ago, when people routinely paid hefty upfront fees to companies that failed to deliver any relief.

Thanks to increased regulation and enforcement, the much smaller number of settlement companies that remain often do what they promise: persuade at least some of a borrower’s creditors to forgive part of the debt, typically in exchange for a lump sum payment.

Several people I’ve interviewed lately reported positive experiences with debt settlement, so I decided to take another look at the industry. It turns out that hiring a negotiator could be a reasonable alternative to bankruptcy for some. But debt settlement is not as consumer-friendly as the industry presents it, and some of the people who praised the companies didn’t fully understand their alternatives or the longer-term consequences of settling debt.

In my latest for the Associated Press, a look at the biggest problems with debt settlement.

Q&A: The woes of this car-less worker can’t be fixed with junkers or leasing schemes

Dear Liz: My spouse and I are in Chapter 13 repayment bankruptcy and have a few more years to go. We’re obviously on a tight budget.

My spouse has the reliable car, but I’ve already paid $1,500 cash each for two junkers and it’s caused major stress. I know we can petition the court and be allowed to get financing, but we do not want to and can’t afford to on our budget.

I am, however, up for an evaluation and raise soon at the small, private company where I work.

I am thinking of asking that instead of a raise, they lease a vehicle for me. I do travel sometimes for business so it could be legitimized in that sense. If they leased a vehicle for, say, $200 a month, that would be close to the raise I’m expecting.

The real question is how to handle insurance and liability. Is it possible for my company to lease a vehicle but have the insurance liability fall on me, meaning would I be able to insure it under my own policy though the lease would be through the company?

Answer: Probably not.

A personal auto policy might not even cover your own car if it were used primarily for business. Personal policies typically wouldn’t cover a car owned or leased by your employer.

Also, businesses usually need more liability coverage than most individuals carry, since companies can be bigger lawsuit targets. You can ask for a leased car in lieu of a raise, but expect the cost of the insurance to be part of the calculation and be prepared for the company to decline.

It’s unfortunate you bought two junkers in a row, because the amount you ultimately spent could have bought you one decent car.

Car comparison site Edmunds has advice for finding reliable vehicles for $2,500, which it says is a reasonable budget for buying a solid car.

The vehicles are likely to be 10 to 15 years old and may have over 150,000 miles on the odometer, but if they’ve been well-maintained they can be reliable rides for several more years.

You’re likely to get the best deal via a private party sale, and you’ll want a good mechanic to check out any car before you buy. Your mechanic may even have a lead or two on cars that could be good candidates.

Your raise may allow you to revisit the idea of financing a car, albeit at a high interest rate.

As you know, you won’t be able to buy anything extravagant, and the purchase will have to be approved by both your trustee and the court. If the car is a necessity for you to get to work and you’ve been in your repayment plan at least two years, you have a good chance of being allowed to finance it.

If the car is not a necessity, you may have other options.

If you live in a city, a transit pass may get you to most of the places you need to go and you can rent a car or use a ride-sharing service when you need more custom transportation. Many people have discovered that cars are a costly hassle, and they live just fine without them.

Q&A: How one spouse’s bankruptcy filing affects the other spouse

Dear Liz: If one spouse files for bankruptcy, how does that affect the other spouse? What happens to the joint accounts?

Answer: How the nonfiling spouse is affected depends on whether they live in a community-property or a common-law state.

Most states are common-law states. Property and debts acquired during marriage can belong to only one spouse.

In these states, the filing spouse’s separate property and their share of any jointly owned property become part of the bankruptcy. Any property that isn’t protected under the state’s bankruptcy exemption laws can be taken and sold to pay creditors.

The bankruptcy trustee may try to partition any joint property so only the filing spouse’s share is sold, but if that’s not possible the whole property may be sold and the nonfiling spouse will be paid for his or her share. The bankruptcy erases the filing spouse’s separate debts and share of any joint debts, but the nonfiling spouse still has to pay his or her share of those joint debts.

In community-property states, property and debts acquired during marriage typically belong to both spouses, even if they’re in only one spouse’s name. So a bankruptcy filing by one spouse in a community property state can put more property at risk. (Community-property states include Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington and Wisconsin.)

As in common-law states, a completed bankruptcy erases the filing spouse’s debts but leaves the other spouse on the hook for his or her share of any joint debts.

In community-property states, though, the nonfiling spouse can get a benefit known as a “phantom discharge.” If the filing spouse gets debts wiped out and is able to protect community property under the state’s exemption laws, then that property stays protected. As long as the couple is married, creditors won’t be able to touch it.

Bankruptcy has gotten complicated enough that you’ll want to get good, solid advice from an experienced bankruptcy attorney before you proceed with any filing. Most such attorneys offer a free or low-cost initial consultation to discuss whether it’s the right solution for your situation. You can get referrals from the National Assn. of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys at www.nacba.org.

Wednesday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: Four times when you might need a financial planner. Also in the news: Understanding the Glass-Steagall Act, how to manage money in your 20s, and how the Affordable Care Act drove down personal bankruptcy.

4 Times When You Might Need a Financial Planner
Times when you shouldn’t go it alone.

The Glass-Steagall Act: What It Is and Why It Matters
Understanding the banking regulation.

How to Manage Money in Your 20s
Welcome to adulthood.

How the Affordable Care Act Drove Down Personal Bankruptcy

Thursday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: Only 1 in 10 Americans are at Peak Financial Health. Also in the news: How to dodge stock market scams, when a tax refund means bankruptcy, and millennial parents face the reality of baby costs.

Only 1 in 10 Americans at Peak Financial Health
Where Americans are falling short.

How to Dodge Stock Market Scams
Protecting your investments.

When a Tax Refund Means Bankruptcy
Using a refund as a budget tool or a chance at a fresh start.

Millennial parents face the reality of baby costs
Babies are both adorable and expensive.

Q&A: What to do about heavy credit card debt

Dear Liz: I have a lot of credit card debt and am just able to make minimum payments. I feel like after doing this for four years now that I am not getting ahead. I will be 61 this summer and don’t have much saved for retirement. My rent keeps going up along with other expenses. I have an 11-year-old car that is in need of maintenance but don’t have the funds to do it. My question is, what would happen if I walk away from the credit card debt? Will I be facing garnishment?

Answer: Yes, you could be sued and face wage garnishment if you simply stopped paying your debts.

You could consider a debt management plan offered through a credit counselor, which could lower the interest rates you pay. You can get referrals from the National Foundation for Credit Counseling at www.nfcc.org. But you’d be making payments for the next five years or so, when you could be putting that cash toward your retirement.

A Chapter 7 bankruptcy, by contrast, would take a few months and legally erase your credit card debt to give you a fresh start. Bankruptcy is often the best of bad options when you can’t make progress on your debts. Consider meeting with both a credit counselor and a bankruptcy attorney so you understand all your options.

Tuesday’s need-to-know money news

Today’s top story: There’s still time to make an IRA contribution for 2016. Also in the news: FAFSA tool outage, 4 money lies you might be telling yourself, and when a tax refund means bankruptcy.

There’s Still Time to Make an IRA Contribution for 2016
You have a couple more weeks.

FAFSA Tool Outage: Students It Affects Most and How to Cope
Added stress.

4 Money Lies You Might Be Telling Yourself
Time for the truth.

When a tax refund means bankruptcy
The means to pay for going broke.

Q&A: Credit score after bankruptcy

Dear Liz: This is just to add to your observation that credit scores tend to improve after a bankruptcy. I filed Chapter 13, which required a five-year repayment plan. At that point my score was around 640. The day of the discharge, I was able to get a car loan at 3% interest. Also, the bankruptcy dropped off my credit reports seven years from the filing date, and my scores actually dropped a good bit.

Answer: It’s pretty unusual for scores to go down after a bankruptcy drops off your credit reports. It’s possible you weren’t looking at the same type of score because there are many different formulas in use. It also could be there were other changes that happened simultaneously, such as a high balance on a credit account or an old, paid-off loan that a creditor stopped reporting.

It’s not unusual, though, for someone who completes a Chapter 13 to get a competitive rate on a loan where there’s collateral, such as an auto loan, assuming he has a job, credit score expert John Ulzheimer said.

“Debt free plus employed equals not a bad risk, especially if they put down a decent down payment,” Ulzheimer said.