Q&A: Freezing Your Social Security Number

Dear Liz: Recently you answered a question about whether Social Security files could be “frozen” to help prevent fraudulent activity, and your response was no. I had just researched that question after the Equifax breach, and found out the Social Security Administration does have a way to block electronic access to your records now, so I had that set up for me. The administration advised that it can be done whether you have an online account or not (I don’t). There is additional information about this on the Social Security website: https://secure.ssa.gov/acu/IPS_INTR/blockaccess

Answer: When you block electronic access to your Social Security file, no one, including you, is able to see your records or change your information online or through the administration’s automated phone service. Blocking access could prevent someone from tampering with your record, but it also could prevent you from detecting misuse of your Social Security number if someone is using it for employment or tax fraud. Blocking access certainly won’t prevent other kinds of identity theft involving credit, medical care or criminal arrest. A better approach might be to set up an online Social Security account to prevent someone else from doing so fraudulently, and to monitor that account regularly.

There is another government service, myE-Verify, that enables you to “lock” your Social Security number. That may prevent someone from using your number to get a job, but only if an employer uses the service to determine applicants’ eligibility to work in the U.S. — and many employers don’t. Even if you succeed in preventing employment fraud, your number could still be used in other types of identity theft. Also, a Social Security lock expires after one year, so you’d need to renew it annually if you want to keep it in place.

Unfortunately, there’s no easy way to prevent your Social Security number from being misused. As long as those nine digits continue to be used as an all-purpose identifier, we will be vulnerable to all kinds of identity theft.

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